Immunopathogenesis of neuromyelitis optica.

Authors: Levy M, Wildemann B, Jarius S, Orellano B, Sasidharan S, Weber MS, Stuve O
Abstract
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO, Devic’s syndrome) is a clinical syndrome characterized by optic neuritis and (mostly longitudinally extensive) myelitis. If untreated, NMO usually takes a relapsing course and often results in blindness and tetra- or paraparesis. The discovery of autoantibodies to aquaporin-4, the most abundant water channel in the CNS, in 70-80% of patients with NMO (termed NMO-IgG or AQP4-Ab) and subsequent investigations into the pathogenic impact of this new reactivity have led to the recognition of NMO as an autoimmune condition and as a disease entity in its own right, distinct from classic multiple sclerosis. Here, we comprehensively review the current knowledge on the role…

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