Visual prostheses for the blind.

Authors: Shepherd RK, Shivdasani MN, Nayagam DA, Williams CE, Blamey PJ
Abstract
After more than 40 years of research, visual prostheses are moving from the laboratory into the clinic. These devices are designed to provide prosthetic vision to the blind by stimulating localized neural populations in one of the retinotopically organized structures of the visual pathway – typically the retina or visual cortex. The long gestation of this research reflects the many significant technical challenges encountered including surgical access, mechanical stability, hardware miniaturization, hermetic encapsulation, high-density electrode arrays, and signal processing. This review provides an introduction to the pathophysiology of blindness; an overview of existing visual prostheses, their advan… …read more