Parainflammation associated with advanced glycation endproduct stimulation of RPE in vitro: Implications for age-related degenerative diseases of the eye.

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This study investigates the effects of AGE stimulation on pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways in primary culture of human retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE). Differential gene expression studies revealed a total of 41 up- and 18 down-regulated RPE genes in response to AGE stimulation. These genes fell into three categories as assessed by gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). The main categories were inflammation (interferon-induced, immune response) and proteasome degradation, followed by caspase signaling. Using suspension array technology, protein levels of secreted cytokines and growth factors were also examined. Anti-inflammatory cytokines including IL10, IL1ra and IL9 were all overexpressed. Pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL4, IL15 and IFN-γ were overexpressed, while other p…